Basic NAT information
NAT (Network Address Translation) is a system that acts like a proxy, but on a "packet" level. When a computer on your local network connects to a computer on the Internet, the NAT replaces the "from" information of packets with its own address, making your local network invisible to the Internet. Many firewalls perform NAT duties as well, so the following information is valid in firewalled environments as well.
For server systems, NAT can improve security and enable multiple servers to be accessed using a single IP address. This is done by allowing certain ports forwarded "inward" to the local network. However, the part of the FTP protocol known as "passive" data transfers is not by default compatible with NAT solutions. But NAT functionality is possible with ProFTPD versions 1.2rc2 and later.
Note: for details on NAT configuration for Linux, read the Linux IP-masq HOWTO at:
tldp.org/HOWTO/IP-Masquerade-HOWTO/or search for information concerning your OS of choice.
Configuring ProFTPD behind NAT
First configure your installed
proftpd so that it works correctly
from inside the NAT. There are example configuration files included with the
source. Then add the
proftpd.conf file to define the public name or IP address
of the NAT. For example:
MasqueradeAddress ftp.mydomain.com # using a DNS name MasqueradeAddress 18.104.22.168 # using an IP addressNow your
proftpdwill hide its local address and instead use the public address of your NAT.
However, one big problem still exists. The passive FTP connections will use ports from 1024 and up, which means that you must forward all ports 1024-65535 from the NAT to the FTP server! And you have to allow many (possibly) dangerous ports in your firewalling rules! Not a good situation. For a good description of active versus passive FTP data transfers, see:
http://slacksite.com/other/ftp.htmlTo resolve this, simply use the
PassivePortsdirective in your
proftpd.confto control what ports
proftpdwill use for its passive data transfers:
PassivePorts 60000 65535 # These ports should be safe...Note that if the configured range of ports is too small, connecting clients may experience delays or be completely unable to operate when they request passive data transfers. When the daemon cannot use one of the ports in the configured range, it will fall back to using a kernel-assigned port, and log a message reporting the issue. The clients' ability to use this non-configured port will then depend on any NAT, router, or firewall configuration.
Now start the FTP daemon and you should see something like:
22.214.171.124 - Masquerading as '126.96.36.199' (188.8.131.52)in the log files.
A Linux Example
This example is for Linux kernel version 2.2.x with
ipmasqadm. The examples below assume
that your FTP server has local address
First we need to enable NAT for our FTP server. As
echo "1">/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward ipchains -P forward DENY ipchains -I forward -s 192.168.1.2 -j MASQNow we load the
autofwkernel module and forward ports 20 and 21 to the FTP server:
insmod ip_masq_autofw ipmasqadm autofw -A -r tcp 20 21 -h 192.168.1.2Then we forward ports for passive FTP transfers. In our
proftpd.conffile we restricted passive transfers to ports 60000-65535, so that is what we use here as well:
ipmasqadm autofw -A -r tcp 60000 65535 -h 192.168.1.2
If instead your Linux system uses IP Filters, then you might do something
like the following. First, update your
# Allow passive FTP transfers from ports 49152 to 65534, the IANA-registered # ephemeral port range. pass in quick proto tcp from any to any port 49151 >< 65535 flags S keep stateThen make sure that the changes take effect by using:
ipf -Fa -f /path/to/ipf.conf
proftpd that allows passive data transfers srequires
that a range of ports be forwarded from the NAT to the local network. This
could be a security hazard, but since you can specify what port range to use,
you are still able to setup relatively tight firewalling rules. To be sure
that you have no other processes listening on the ports you have specified
for passive transfers, use a port scanner such as
nmap -sT -I -p 60000-65535 localhostIf the result says something like:
All 5536 scanned ports on localhost (127.0.0.1) are: closedthen you should be safe.
Frequently Asked Questions
Question: How do I know if my
PassivePorts configuration is
Answer: When performing a passive data transfer, an FTP client sends the
PASV command to the FTP server. The server
responds with the address and port to which the client should connect. For
227 Entering Passive Mode (127,0,0,1,19,6).
The address and port are contained in the parentheses, formatted as
a1,a2,a3,a4,p1,p2, where the IP address is:
and the port number is:
p1 * 256 + p2
If the address seen in the server's response is not a public IP address
or the port is not in the port range configured by your
PassivePorts, double-check your
Non-public IP addresses are defined by RFC 1918, and include
Question: How do I know if my
Question: I am using the
directive, but my FTP client still doesn't work. In the proftpd debug logging,
May 20 17:00:55 www.example.com proftpd wwww.example.com (::ffff:184.108.40.206[::ffff:220.127.116.11]): Refused PORT 192,168,1,2,193,116 (address mismatch)Answer: The
PORTthere means that the FTP client is requesting an active data transfer; this means that proftpd is being asked to actively connect to the client (to the given address 192.168.1.2, port 49524).
The first problem is, as the log message indicates, that the IP address
given in the
PORT command, 192.168.1.2, does not match
the IP address from which the client connected (i.e. 18.104.22.168). By
default, proftpd will refuse to create a data transfer connection to anywhere
except back to the requesting client's IP address; see the
AllowForeignAddress directive for
The next problem is that 192.168.1.2 IP address is not a publicly routable I address; specifically, it is part of an RFC 1918 address space. This means that is not possible for proftpd to connect to that address (unless proftpd is located in the same LAN).
The solution for these situations is to a) configure proftpd to use
and b) to configure your FTP client to request passive data
transfers (via the
EPSV commands), rather
than active data transfers.
Question: I am using
in my config, using the external DNS name for my site, but
still returns the internal/LAN IP address in the
Is it a bug?
Answer: Most likely not. If you use something like:
MasqueradeAddress ftp.example.comand see the internal IP address in the
PASVresponse, it suggests that
proftpd, when starting up, resolves that DNS name from within your LAN, and gets that internal IP address. Rather than using the DNS name, you should explicitly use the external IP address in your
MasqueradeAddress 22.214.171.124where "126.96.36.199" is your real external IP address.
Question: Can I configure
proftpd so that
it refuses to handle passive transfers?
Answer: If you are using a version of
proftpd older than 1.2.10rc1, no. In 1.2.10rc1, support for
placing limits on the
PORT (and their
EPRT) was added, so that
you could do the following:
<Limit EPSV PASV> DenyAll </Limit>
Question: How can I make
MasqueradeAddress based on the address of the
Answer: This question usually arises in the case where FTP clients connecting from inside the LAN see the same
MasqueradeAddress as external clients, which causes problems.
MasqueradeAddress may be necessary in order to allow
external FTP clients to do passive data transfers. The internal clients
do not need it. To handle this, create a
section in your
proftpd.conf to handle the LAN address of
the FTP server, the address that the internal clients are contacting.
<VirtualHost> section, make sure there is no
MasqueradeAddress directive. This way, the external FTP
clients "see" the configuration with the
MasqueradeAddress they need, and the internal FTP clients
"see" a different configuration, one with no
For those that need to see a concrete example configuration of this:
ServerName "Some Server Name" MasqueradeAddress my.domain.com PassivePorts 60000 65535 # Note that your LAN address should be used here <VirtualHost 192.168.0.10> ServerName "Some Other Server Name" # Note that there is no MasqueradeAddress directive # used in this section! </VirtualHost>