ProFTPD: Configuring FTP over SSH

IMPORTANT NOTICE: the original instructions listed on this page, based on were incorrect, and did not lead to the proper encryption of the FTP control channel. Many, many thanks to Michael Jochimsen for pointing out the incorrect use of ssh port forwarding!

The File Transfer Protocol is an old protocol, and like many of the older protocols it was developed in a time when security was not of such a paramount concern. One aspect of FTP that reflects this is the transmission of passwords, used to prove to the server that the client is who they say they are, "in the clear", unencrypted, visible to any packet sniffer. Protocols like SSH, and its scp program, are replacing FTP as a means to securely transfer files among hosts.

However, many people still prefer to use their standard FTP clients. What would be easiest would be a way to allow such clients to function while transparently providing the encryption necessary for today's networks. Can this be done? Yes - after a fashion. This document aims to describe how to tunnel FTP over an SSH channel, providing for secure transmission of the user's password.

Client Configuration
The trick to encrypting the password is to make use of ssh's local port forwarding capability. It works by creating a sort of proxy on the local host that listens to some high-numbered port. Any traffic sent to that port is encrypted, and forwarded to the configured remote address and port. (Note: the prior instructions' flaw was that the local port forwarding request was sent to localhost, rather than to the remote server, which effectively set up the encrypted channel between localhost and itself). Here's how to set up a local port forward:

  $ ssh -Llocal-port:remote-addr:remote-port user@host
This says to listen on port local-port on localhost, and to send that encrypted traffic to host's remote-addr at port remote-port. To use this trick to secure an FTP session (to be specific, the control channel, through which passwords are transmitted, will be encrypted; the data channel will not), it would look like:
  $ ssh -f -L3000:ftpserver:21 ftpserver 'exec sleep 10' && ftp localhost 3000
Note that the choice of local-port is arbitrary. Using port 3000 is not a requirement. This trick also requires that the ftp client use passive mode data transfers, so make sure to use a client that understands FTP passive mode.

Remember that only the control connection is encrypted, not the data connection: any data you transfer (e.g. directory listings, files uploaded or downloaded) are still sent "in the clear". Your password (and the other FTP commands sent by the client) is not.

Server Configuration
The server side of the connection needs some configuration to make the ssh tunneling work as well. First, the client need a valid account on the remote host is necessary in order to support the ssh tunnel. A valid shell is not strictly necessary for these ssh tunnels, though; something like:

  sleep 10
would suffice. This would prevent the FTP users from logging in, yet give them enough time to establish a port forwarded ssh connection. With this sort of quasi-shell (although, strictly speaking, there are better, more restrictive shells than this example, as it could be escaped from), one can ssh over any command:
  $ ssh -l test -f -L3000:ftpserver:21 ftpserver true && ftp localhost 3000
You'll also need to use the AllowForeignAddress configuration directive in your configuration file:
   AllowForeignAddress on
or proftpd will reject the passive transfer connections and log:
  SECURITY VIOLATION: Passive connection from {host} rejected

Note that the use of the server host's DNS name, or its IP address, in the setting up of the ssh tunnel assumes that the routing of traffic to the host's own IP address will be short-circuited in the kernel and thus not actually be transmitted on the wire. On modern kernels this is a fair assumption, but may not always be the case. For the truly paranoid, use of localhost or as the remote-addr parameter in the ssh tunnel command would cause traffic on host to be sent over its loopback address, and not over the network. However, this will prevent data transfers from working altogether. The author has a patch for scenarios like this; if interested, please contact him directly via email.

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